BOCA BEARINGS 2015 INNOVATION COMPETITION

Hybrid Airplanes

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Presented By:
Shreyasvi Natraj
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ABOUT THIS PROJECT


Tell us briefly about your project. Is it a work of art or does it serve another function?

Efficient airplanes is a project about implementation of the technology of hybrid cars used for the Li+ ion battery recharge, in case of hybrid airplanes in order to increase the efficiency of hybrid airplanes by providing rechargement to the electrical power supply during its flight and at the time of landing so as to reduce the impact on non – conventional methods of rechargement used for recharging its batteries. In order to make this much more applicable in case of hybrid airplanes we proposed two methods for electric power generation namely for the above given purpose - 1) Regenerative Brakes 2) Thermo-electric Generator These have been currently used in case of hybrid cars in order to generate electricity to feed it back into the batteries. In this case, it is hypothesized that there would be very no weight addition onto the aircraft body and high power generation by the setups. In short, the final power to weight ratio would be greater than 1 kW/kg. All the information used in deducting the theoretical here has been calculated with reference to the commercial airline Airbus A320 (Hybrid) airplane.

When did you start working on this project and how long did it take you to complete?

Tasks Performed Started 5 January to 5 February 2015, All the previous days were spend in planning that how we are going to carry out the work related to the project, giving out tasks to each of the team member mainly designing and a lot of pre-research that needed to be done so that we could make sure that what we were making was either feasible or not. We usually discussed this project with many of our seniors including head of aeronautic department of the college Indian institute of science and checked what might be the possible problems that could cause us and the feasibility of this project a problem. Moreover, we also discussed this project with our mentors when we had some research done in this field and asked them if from their part any problem could arrive. When we were sure that this would be quite feasible enough we did some more research on individual setups. 5 February 2015 – March 10 2015, First of all the major task was to calculate the power generated by the whole setup. We already know that power generation is one the major factors that suggest whether this setup is good enough to be applied in the case of airplanes so that we can get maximum power output in order to charge batteries in order to provide good amount of clean energy. For regenerative brakes - the regenerative brakes were currently being used in hybrid cars in order to generate electricity in order to recharge the battery power of the hybrid car with minimum weight addition to the vehicle. The calculation regarding the regenerative brakes could be done using the formula used of calculating this power in the case of regenerative brakes as was mentioned earlier. Hence, using the formula available currently we were able to calculate the power generated by the regenerative brakes and also were able to conclude that we must use this as an addition in our project in order to act as a method to increase the efficiency of airplane. Next was the weight calculation regarding the regenerative brake. This setup used a motor/generator arrangement. Hence, the motor used for taxing in case of airplanes which is brushless motor could be replaced by brushed motor such that this motor acts as a motor/generator and regenerate the energy that was earlier lost by the airplane at the time of braking. Hence, in this case the weight addition was mainly caused by the electronic management system used to manage the power generated by the regenerative brakes which was not quite a lot. Moreover, on doing further research we obtained that we could replace other methods of rechargement used up in airplanes and replace them with this setup in order to compensate weight. Finally came the cost. We obtained the cost with the help of our mentor who provided us with the power to cost ratio for regenerative braking. Moreover, we also found that this cost can be easily compensated using the same replacement method i.e. replacing power rechargement techniques with this setup. Next thing we did was summarise all of these things and explain them in detail in our project thesis. For Aircraft thermoelectric generator, the information about TEG was also available on the internet and hence, we calculated it using the information available. Moreover, also found the cost and weight using the same source. March 15 2015 – March 20 2015, In this time I stayed in the lab the whole time to find the suitable electronic management system that could be used in order to make the power generated properly supplied to the batteries and we found the right circuit for their respective tasks. Moreover, their cost and weight were included in the thesis. Furthermore, we also conducted a small scale experiment to obtain the graph for the power generated vs time for regenerative braking as it was quite important for us to display the manner in which power is generated when the plane lands. The above research was just done on a small scale and hence for their application the variables just needed to be changed. Moreover, the structural representation would be the same. March 20 2015 – March 25 2015, In this time we finally tallied all of the data found, arranged them orderly and finally made a thesis out of it and send it to our mentor for checking. March 10 – March 25 2015 – All this time we were in lab and tested on thermoelectric generator, regenerative braking and electronics management system (to be used for proper management of electricity) and we found that the results were well matched with what we had previously done in the calculations. For the calculation of the case of thermoelectric generator we re-performed the experiment as was done in the the link below- (Source - http://www.academia.edu/3648232/Modeling_of_an_Automotive_ThermoElectric_Generator_ATEG) And found out the values of power generated at different temperatures. Moreover, for regenerative braking, we performed the OCC experiment using a DC shunt motor. Finally, we made tallied the best rechargement circuits and performed lab experimentation of all of them. Finally, we found the most suitable and best rechargement circuits that would be best for the current situation. March 25 2015 – March 31 2015 We found out what setups can we replace from the aircraft body in order to compensate weight and cost difference of these setups. Finally we completed our video with all the editing and stuff and posted all of the information for Round 3. Resources Used Most of the information that we had was provided through the research previously done in these fields i.e. in the field of regenerative braking and thermoelectric generator. Hence, we could easily get the power calculation equations from the internet and the patents available. Moreover, for weight and cost calculations we used some help from our mentor and some by using the comparative unitary method in order to estimate the cost of this setup for the case of airplanes. Most of the web pages from where we got our information have been kept in blue coloured text labelled as source. Moreover, we performed experiments in order to validate the results we obtained during calculations. The experiments done were as follows – 1) OCC experiment 2) Thermoelectric generator modelling 3) Electronic system modelling Apart from this we used the following softwares – 1) Google Sketchup 8 2) Adobe Premier Pro CC 3) Adobe Photoshop CS 4) Bandicam 5) Microsoft word 6) Microsoft Premier Encoder 7) Virtual DJ Pro For obtaining electronic management system circuits, we took help from the electrical engineering lab. Moreover, the name of the equipments we used in the circuit making are labelled in the diagram shown in previous sections.

What was your goal in building this project?

Objectives As we know that the major challenge in it was to make sure there is no extra weight addition in the aircraft body so, the main objectives of this project were as follows – 1) Generation of maximum power 2) Minimum or no weight addition to aircraft body 3) Minimum cost of materials and installation Aims The main aims behind the making of this project were as follows – 1) Decreasing the pollution caused due to consumption of aircraft fuel. 2) Increasing the efficiency of hybrid airplanes. 3) Reducing aircraft fuel energy crisis. Calculations used Regenerative Braking calculations (Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_brake) This was used in the case of hybrid cars for calculation of energy produced by regenerative brakes. Where: • Is the work into the generator • Is the work produced by the generator The only work into the generator is the initial kinetic energy of the car and the only work produced by the generator is the electrical energy. Rearranging this equation to solve for the power produced by the generator gives this equation: Where: • Is the amount of time the car brakes • Is the mass of the car • Is the initial velocity of the car just before braking (Source of the information given below – http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_landing_speed_of_an_Airbus_A320 http://www.airbus.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a320family/) At the time of landing, Average Velocity of the plane, = 200 km/h = 55.6 ms-1 Average landing weight of the plane, = 61000 kg Time taken by the airplane to stop = 30s (Source – Airbus expert as provided by the system supplier) The average motor/generator efficiency = 10% = 0.1 (Assumption)(Taking several losses in consideration) A graph representing the variation of efficiency for regenerative braking is shown below- (Source - http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/regenerative-braking5.htm) Power generated by the airplane will be:- Velocity just before braking (V1) = 200km/h = 55.6 m/s, Taxing speed (V2) = 50km/h = 13.89 m/s, Braking time (t) = 30s Hence, using the relation written above, Max Energy available (E) = (½ MV12 -½ MV22) X Generator Efficiency = (94286480 – 584429.1) X 0.1 = (93702050.9) X 0.1 = 9.37 MJ During 10s, sing the relation as mentioned earlier, P = E/t = 9.37MJ/30s = 0.31232 MW = 312.32 kW For 3 setups = 936.96 kW (Has to be demonstrated experimentally) We have to put it in perspective with Motor/Generator power Power motor (Pm) = C (Nm) X ? (rd/s) = 190X 10000 X 2p/60 = 198.97 kW = 200kW Power provided by generator Ptotal = (312.32 – 198.97) kW = 113.35 kW (Power used up by the motor is compensated) As there are 3 motor/generator arrangements attached to the airplane i.e. one in the front landing gear and two in the rear landing gears. Therefore, Total energy generated at the time of landing by all the three landing gear = 113.35 X 3 = 340.05 kW (with motor power consumption compensated) Aircraft Thermo Electric Generator (Source - http://www.academia.edu/3648232/Modeling_of_an_Automotive_ThermoElectric_Generator_ATEG) Equation through which the above information was found, In the above equations, the mass flow rate of exhaust gas has not been taken into consideration. Hence, from the graphs mentioned above, (Source for - http://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/courses/ww2/projects/jet-airplanes/how.html) Temperature at jet engine end T1 = 2000DC Temperature of coolant T2 = 50DC Hence, Temperature difference ?T = 1950 DC = 2223 K Temperature difference (From graph) = 250 K Power generated (From graph) = 1 kW (Source for calculations- http://tecteg.com/how-thermoelectric-teg-generators-work/) Temperature Difference (DC) Power Generated (W) 100 100 150 200 200 350 250 550 300 800 350 1100 400 1450 450 1850 500 2350 600 2850 700 3450 800 4150 900 5050 1000 5950 1050 6950 1100 8050 1150 9150 1200 10350 1250 11550 1300 12800 1350 14100 1400 15450 1450 16850 1500 18300 1550 19800 1600 21350 1650 23000 1700 24650 1750 26350 1800 28150 1850 28850 1900 31800 1950 33700 Hence, for 1950DC, Power generated for 1950DC = 33700 W = 33.7 kW (For a single finned generator) However, a thermoelectric generator can tolerate a max of 800DC. Hence, power generated = 4150 W = 4.15 kW (With 8% yield consideration and exhaust gas mass flow rate considerations) Power generated by 2 setups (either jet engines) = 8300 W = 8.3 kW For 3 hour flight, Power generated in 3 hours = 8.3 X 3 = 24.9 kWh In the real case this power would be raised by a certain limit i.e. would be more that the value given here as in that case multi-fin thermoelectric generators would be used. In the case of hybrid cars, the power generated is not constant as the kinetic energy of gaseous molecules coming out of the exhaust only increases when the car is accelerated i.e. when more fuel is burnt but in case of airplane the kinetic energy of gaseous molecules is constant and also very high so it will generate more power in case of airplanes which has been calculated as above. Moreover, multiple themo-electric generators can be used in airplanes so as to help generated more power. However, weight must be taken into consideration. Weight analysis Regenerative braking (Source – Airbus expert as provided by system supplier) Weight of taxiing motor = 100 kg As the taxiing motor is going to be replaced by motor/generator setup hence, weight of the setup = 100 X 3 = 300 kg (for 3 setups) Aircraft Thermoelectric Generator Length of the jet engine (CFM56-5B) = 2.5m Length of the thermoelectric generator = 0.5 m Diameter of the jet engine (CFM56-5B) = 1.55 m (fan) Radius of the jet engine = 0.775 m (fan) As the thermoelectric generator is shaped in the form of a hollow frustum its diameter would be slightly less than the jet engines. Diameter of the thermoelectric generator = 1.5 m Radius of the jet engine = 0.75 m Hence, Volume of thermoelectric generator = 0.913352614 m3 = 1 m3 (Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_thermoelectric_generator) (Source - https://www.google.co.in/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=weight%20of%20truck) Weight of average truck = 14969 kg Weight of thermoelectric generator used in case of truck = 110 kg Weight of airbus a320 = 61000 kg Weight of thermoelectric generator in airbus a320 = 448.26 kg = 450 kg (including electronic system) Weight of 2 setups = 900 kg This weight addition will be compensated by the replacement of this setup with batteries used in case of aircrafts to power various things. Moreover, the auxiliary power unit can also be replaced along with the batteries in place of this setup. Cost analysis Thermoelectric Generator (Source - http://thermoelectric-generator.com/) Cost of 1 watt of electricity generated at 100DC temperature = 50 cents Cost of 8.3 kilo watts of electricity generated at 100DC temperature = $ 0.5 X 8.3 =$4150 = $5000 (including electronic management system) Hence, cost at 100DC = $5000 The cost decreases with rise in temperature as less amount of work is needed to be done by TEG in order to generate high amount of energy. Therefore, at 800DC temperature the cost would be less than this value. Moreover, Effective cost = Cost of TEG – Cost of rechargement setups replaces (Rechargement setups may include batteries and also APU) Regenerative Braking System (Source for following information – Airbus expert) For 1kW energy produced cost of motor/generator = $400 For 312.32 kW energy generated cost = $ 124928 = $130000 (Including electronic management system) But, the motor is going to be replaced, Hence, Total Cost = Cost of Motor/Generator arrangement – Cost of taxiing Motor Cost of motor = $80000 Total cost = 130000 – 80000 = $50000 Thus, the cost would be compensated up to a certain extent by the replacement of the taxiing motor with the motor/generator setup. Hence, Cost of the whole setup = Cost of our setup – cost of setup used initially = 630000 – [Cost of power rechargement setup replaced (e.g. APU) + Cost of batteries replaced]

Does your project help to solve a problem? If so what problem?

Description Jet engine/ air conditioning coolant thermoelectric generator (TEG) I have also thought of adding of a thermoelectric generator (used currently in case of cars) whose one end would be attached to the hot part of the jet engine and other end would be attached to the coolant used in the A/C mechanism. As jet engine is extremely hot and coolant is cold therefore they can be used in order to harvest tremendous amount of energy which is continuous. In general cases, the jet engine thrust is at 2000°C and the A/C coolant is generally at 50°C, therefore there is a 1950°C temperature difference which can be used to generate tremendous amount of energy. Power generated will be dependent upon following factors:- 1. Material Selected for Connections 2. Temperature of the engine and of coolant 3. Number of fins used Circuit Diagram, The circuit diagram we made in lab is similar to what will be used for aircraft electronic management system. This is just a miniaturized model of what would be used in the real cases. Given below is the circuit diagram for the rechargement circuit. The values of some of these electronic components would change if the load voltage is changed. Moreover, the circuit would be the same. The key features of this circuit is amplifying even the smallest of voltage and current, generated and making it suitable enough to help in charging the Li+ ion battery. Regenerative braking As we know that the regenerative brakes are being used in cars in order to harvest energy at the time of braking. I have an idea of using the same technology and replacing the aircraft disk brakes with regenerative brakes in which any motor inside of the airplane can act as a generator and can generate the extremely large amount of energy generated at the time of landing. Here, the phenomenon being used is called torque blending. The idea also consists of using a motor engine combination in case of propellered planes so that the rotational motion of the airplane’s propeller could be harvested in order to get more energy. Moreover there would be a variation between the engine and the motor in the most efficient way in order to make the CO2 emission by the airplane much less and also in order to improve the efficiency of the airplane. Moreover there would be use of regenerative landing gears that would harvest the rotation motion of the tyres while the plane is landing in order to generate electricity. Here for the landing gears the motor used in the airplane would be replaced by a motor which also acts as a generator. Hence there is no extra weight addition. For the case of propeller planes there has been current use of the electric motor in the planes therefore there would be no extra addition of weight in airplanes and if there is a problem with that then the amount of batteries would be reduced so as to compensate the weight of the electric motor as there are various methods of rechargement of the left batteries in the airplanes by the methods mentioned above. Hence there is no extra weight addition in this case also. The motor/generator arrangement would have the following specifications- 1) 10,000 rpm DC brushed motor, air cooled 2) 190 Nm motor torque 3) 2 stage gearbox (ratio 11) 4) actuated clutch 5) Pinion gear final stage (ratio 6) Circuit Diagram The circuit diagram we made in lab is similar to what will be used for aircraft electronic management system. Given below is the circuit diagram for the rechargement circuit. The values of some of these electronic components would change if the load voltage is changed. Moreover, the circuit would be the same. Significant weight is due to the electronic management system used in the setup. The key features of this circuit are – 1) Switching mechanism for motor and generator i.e. this can be used for power supply for motor and feeding power generated to the batteries. 2) Suitably stabilizing the voltage and current i.e. helping in making the extremely variable voltage and current generated into suitable and stable power supply to be fed to the batteries.

What makes your idea unique?

How Idea is Innovative The energy generated here is the energy usually lost by aircraft in the form of kinetic and heat energy. Hence, what we have done is simply harvested this kinetic and heat energy and used them to re-generate electricity. Moreover, this method of energy generation helps in providing the airplane with clean, renewable energy and saves the cost and CO2 emissions. Benefits (Source – flybrid (airbus fly your ideas 2013 finalists)) According to team flybrid’s research, By only just the adoption of hybrid technology, we save 1.5 million tonnes of CO2, 750 kilo tonnes of fuel and 450 million dollars money in 1 year. This setup makes it a lot better. It decreases the recharge time (main problem team flybrid was facing) and provides the airplane with clean energy. Apart from increasing the fuel economy, this can be used to power motor during taxiing and during takeoff to reduce the excessive aircraft fuel usage during takeoff. It can be used to provide constant supply of clean energy to the aircraft’s electronic system. It can be used at the time of braking during taxiing to generate little bit of more power.

In what capacity are you using bearings and what type of bearings?

In this project, there is not much use of bearings but in the airplane, bearings are used in a really large quantity in several parts of the airplanes.

What is the most important thing you want people to know about your project?

Factors that must be kept in mind It is quite important to keep in mind to remove as much as batteries or fuel driven power supplying units that would be able to compensate the weight of the setup we have proposed in order to compensate the weight difference. Feasibility of the Idea Taking a look at the power generated by the setup we have proposed and since, the setups we have proposed in this project can have their weight compensated with the help of replacement with some of the setups currently used in the aircraft body that do exactly the same thing i.e. generation of power to be supplied for any task in the aircraft. I can say that this idea is ready to be implemented in case of airplanes, theoritically.

How will you use the $5,000 prize?

I will invest this money to develop this project further and also to develop some other projects of mine.

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